Case 3. Ursus malayanus Shaw & Nodder, 1791
The cleaned skeleton of an adult female Sun bear Ursus malayanus was also obtained by the third author. This bear came from the same zoo as the one treated in the former case. Once again, professional autopsy and/or radiographic examination were not performed and subsequently no information regarding age and/or life history was available. The skeleton is kept in the private collection of the third author.
Examination of the macerated skeleton
Skull. – The skull and dentition were as one should expect from a bear held in captivity. Signs of large alveodental abscesses were found around all apices of both upper canines, the left lower canine, and the lower incisives.
Forelimbs. – Both humeri showed some small marginal osteophytes on the margins of the caput humeri (osteoarthrosis). Scapulae were normal. Some erosion of unknown etiology was found on the proximal joint surfaces of the right ulna. The left ulna and the radii were normal. All right carpalia, metacarpalia and phalanxes were normal. All left carpalia and metacarpalia were likewise normal. Some of the left phalanxes showed irregularly new bone formation and destruction of bone, as the result of osteomyelitis.
Hindlimbs. – Femora, tibiae, and fibulae were normal. The left fibula and tibia were fused in the proximal joint, most probably due to calcification of tendon attachments. All the bones of the feet were normal.
Cervical vertebrae. – All cervical vertebrae were completely normal.
Thoracic vertebrae. – The first seven thoracic vertebrae were normal. The 8th up to and including the 15th thoracic vertebrae showed large marginal and nonmarginal syndesmophytes. The syndesmophytes impinged with each other, but no ankylosis was found. All vertebral endplates and zygapophyseal joint surfaces were normal.
Lumbar vertebrae. – All lumbar vertebrae showed small and some large marginal and nonmarginal syndesmophytes. All vertebral endplates and zygapophyseal joint surfaces were normal.
Pelvis, sacrum, and caudal vertebrae. – The sacroiliac fusion was smooth and symmetric. Some syndesmophytes were found on the right upper margin of S1. The first caudal vertebra was fused with the last sacral one. Both hip joints were normal.